Over the decades, Nepal has made significant progress to provide access to basic water and sanitation to the population. As per the current status, about 97% of the total population have access to basic sanitation facilities and 87 percent have access to basic water supply facility (DWSS, 2018). Poor functionality of existing rural water supply systems has been tabled as priority issues for many years and embedded in the WASH Sector Development Plan. Only around 30% of the households have access to network sewerage coverage. The remaining percent rely onsite sanitation system in the country. These systems mostly comprise of pits and holding tanks with unlined walls or base. The national building code provisions the need to construct standard septic tanks in buildings that are not connected to network sewerage. However, due to a weak compliance mechanism and limited knowledge at the local level, the adoption of standard septic tank is very limited. With increased access to toilets, faecal sludge management is coming up as a growing challenge especially in small towns and cities. Limited volume of wastewater and faecal sludge generated and collected is treated.
In addition to access to water and sanitation, the links between safely managed sanitation, safely managed drinking water services, and handwashing with soap are being increasingly recognised. Moving from basic access to ensuring safe and sustainable access to WASH facilities and services is the next big tasks for the country, as part of addressing the SDG goals and targets.
About WASH Alliance Nepal
The WASH SDG Programme is the largest programme WASH Alliance International is currently involved in. Funded by the Dutch Government, in Nepal, the WASH SDG program consists of three sub-programmes, implemented by SNV, PLAN and the WASH Alliance.
About WASH Alliance International
The WASH Alliance International (WAI) is a multi-national network of partners worldwide. We work together with local NGOs, governments and businesses, research institutes or (local) media to make sure everybody on this planet has sustainable access to water, sanitation and hygiene. We envision world where all people have access to sustainable and affordable water, sanitation and hygiene services.
In Nepal, the WASH Alliance implements a sub-programme in four municipalities in Banke and Surkhet Districts in the Western part of Nepal. The programme runs from July 2018 up to June 2022.
The WASH Alliance International sub-programme in Nepal cooperates with Akvo Nepal (data management tools), BSP (biogas), ENPHO (urban sanitation and water quality), Fedwasun (lobby and advocacy), FSCN (gender and social inclusion), Lumanti (micro finance and cooperatives) Sahakarmi Samaj (community mobilization), Sebac and CIUD (institutional WASH) and a number of technical assistance partners both national and Dutch partners.
Pathway 1: Increase demand for, and use of, equitable and sustainable WASH services
Under this pathway, the alliance works closely with targeted communities, water and sanitation user committees to raise awareness among the communities on the importance of inclusive and sustainable WASH, develop climate resilient water supply system improvement plans to generate investments using a variety of tools and approaches.
Pathway 2: Increased participation of women and socially excluded
We ensure that women and socially excluded people are empowered and have equitable access to and use of WASH services and facilities. We promote the meaningful participation and true representation of women and socially excluded groups in decision making processes, at community level and in relevant WASH public platforms.
Pathway 3: Improved private sector sustainable and equitable WASH service delivery.
We help develop a functioning and inclusive WASH market and focus on promoting business opportunities for WASH, setting up guarantee funds for banks and micro- finance institutions; provision of loans and training to entrepreneurs, in particular female WASH entrepreneurs.
Pathway 4: Improved public sector equitable and sustainable WASH service delivery and governance.
We assist the local government developing regulations and policies and attracting the private sector to invest in WASH. We support local government in the facilitation of multi-stakeholder dialogues and we will lobby for the increase of local WASH budgets. There will be a special focus on WASH in schools.
Women entrepreneurship development
Using the diamond approach, women entrepreneurship development is being prioritised to provide WASH products and services. Notably, during the first phase, 3 women entrepreneurs were developed to manufacture bio-sand filters for water treatment. During the second phase (2020-2022) existing and additional women entrepreneurs will be provide business coaching to expand, diversify and sustain their business.
Citywide sanitation planning and faecal sludge management
During the first phase (2018-July 2020), citywide sanitation plan was developed for Kohalpur Municipality. In the current phase, CSP will be operationalised through detail technical design, establishment of the faecal sludge treatment system with investment from the municipality, operationalise a service and a business model for FSM.
WASH Plans for Municipalities
As a continuity of Phase I, WASH Plans will be developed for each of the four municipalities considering local priorities. For example, in Barahataal Rural Municipality, the WASH plan will be focus on the water use aspects of the municipality. In Bheriganga, the priority will be on solid waste management including operationalisation of public toilets.
Establishment of Water Quality Labs
Through a public private partnership modality, water quality testing labs will be established in each municipality. All items were procured prior to onset of the global pandemic. The set up will be completed during the current phase.
Mainstreaming GESI, Menstrual Hygiene and SRHR
These themes have been taken up as cross-cutting issues which will be mainstreamed into the program activities across all pathways.